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Evidence Based Medicine: EBM Pyramid

Resources for evidence based medicine.

EBM Pyramid


Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) Resources

Evidence-Based Medicine is the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values. (Straus SE, et al. Evidence-based medicine: how to practice and teach it. 4th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2011.)


Read more about the EBM Pyramid here:

TRIP (Turning Research Into Practice) Database Plus

Simultaneously searches evidence-based sources of systematic reviews, practice guidelines, and critically-appraised topics and articles -- including most of those listed above and many more. Also searches MEDLINE’s Clinical Queries, medical image databases, e-textbooks, and patient information leaflets. Free resource.


Filtered Resources

Filtered resources appraise the quality of studies and often make recommendations for practice

Systematic Reviews / Meta-Analyses

The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews *

Consists of detailed, structured topic reviews of hundreds of articles. Teams of experts complete comprehensive literature reviews, evaluate the literature, and present summaries of the findings of the best studies. Published by the International Cochrane Collaboration. Click on "Cochrane Reviews"

Systematic Reviews are also searchable in these sources:

Critically-Appraised Topics

National Guideline Clearinghouse (sponsored by the United States DHHS)

A comprehensive database of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and related documents produced by the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality, in partnership with the American Medical Association and the American Association of Health Plans. Updated weekly.

Note: Guideline evidence varies from expert opinion to high levels of evidence.

Critically-Appraised Individual Articles

The ACP Journal Club *

The editors of this journal screen the top 100+ clinical journals and identify studies that are methodologically sound and clinically relevant. An enhanced abstract, with conclusions clearly stated, and a commentary are provided for each selected article.

Unfiltered Resources


PubMed Clinical Queries *

To limit your PubMed search to the best evidence-producing studies:
  • Enter your search term(s).
  • Results will display under Clinical Study Categories, Systematic Reviews, Medical Genetics.
  • For Clinical Study Categories :
    • you can filter by "category" (etiology, diagnosis, therapy, prognosis, clinical prediction guidelines) or
    • "scope" (broad or narrow)
  • For Medical Genetics :
    • you can filter by "topic" (diagnosis, differential diagnosis, clinical description, clinical description, management, genetic counseling, molecular genetics, genetic testing)

PsycINFO *

International coverage of the professional and academic literature in psychology, medicine, psychiatry, nursing, sociology, education, pharmacology, physiology, linguistics, and other areas.

Click “Browse Methodology” and select the checkbox for “Systematic Reviews”.


Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature

To limit your CINAHL search to the best evidence-producing studies: select type of “Clinical Queries” or select “Evidence-Based Care Sheet” or “Practice Guidelines” or “Systematic Reviews” in “Publication Type”. is a registry of federally and privately supported clinical trials conducted in the United States and around the world. gives you information about a trial's purpose, who may participate, locations, and phone numbers for more details. This information should be used in conjunction with advice from health care professionals.


Background Information/Expert Opinion

Note: Evidence in these resources may vary from expert opinion to high levels of evidence.

UpToDate *

A clinical information resource, which offers up-to-date, fully referenced expert answers to patient-care, diagnosis, and treatment questions. Topic reviews are written by recognized authorities who review the topic, synthesize the evidence, summarize key findings, and provide specific recommendations.


Harrison's Online*

Searchable and continually updated version of Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine.

ClinicalKey (Elsevier) *

Delivers all of Elsevier's medical and surgical content in one dynamic resource, giving physicians access to over 1100 top books, over 600 top journals, multimedia images and videos, more than 300 instructional videos from Procedures Consult ; practice guidelines ; drug monographs ; patient education ; MEDLINE citations and abstracts from PubMed.